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The fascination with tattoo images swept the Victorian world when Samuel O’Reilly created the tattoo machine in 1891. A torture that could last weeks could be done faster and with less pain. The appetite for tattoos, seen as exotic through their association with the sea travel, was very present in the world of popular entertainment and among the circus people.  Even women without particular talent or beauty could make a living in the show business through displaying their tattooed bodies. However, they were marked for life as persons of low morals and little faith.

In the past, the western civilization associated corporal marking with crime. This reputation was due to the practice of tattooing in prisons. Made with makeshift means, the tattoos had to be hidden because they were forbidden by the church. For the prisoners, it was a way to claim their personality despite the gray reality of confinement. This bad reputation was strengthened by the marking of prostitutes who were inspired by the criminals they frequented. In the world of low-class crime, tattoos displayed the membership of a gang. A discreet mark near the eyes identified at the first sight the Parisian Apache.

It was not until the 1970s that tattooing became popular with the arrival of the hippie movement. Little by little, this practice became more widespread as sports and music stars began publicly wearing tattoos.

Related post:

The Gangs of Paris: Les Apaches

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Claude Monet: Women in the Garden, 1866

 

 

How did they do it? The question occurs to many who see pictures of Victorian women in voluminous skirts. With up to twenty yards of fabric supported by a cage, the call of nature seems to be an insurmountable problem. In the post The French Art of Peeing without Getting Wet Feet published here,  we read about the history of public urinals that served men. Readers wondered, with reason, what provision was made for women. We can only guess that chamber pots were the solution. Other than that, the true manipulation remained a mystery until the Prior Attire came to the rescue. The Prior Attire is the Sixth Cavalry of fashion history. With the video they published on YouTube, we now know the secrets of the Victorian restroom:

 

 

 

 

Related posts:

The French Art of Peeing without Getting Wet Feet

The Belle Epoque Lifestyle: Personal Hygiene

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The French culinary lifestyle—such as a family eating in a restaurant—surprised many mid-century travelers. In their home countries, eating in a public place made sense only when a person was away from her home and its safe food. This was a habit in France as well until the 1789 revolution. With the aristocrats guillotined or gone to exile, many skilled and creative cooks became unemployed. The only solution was to open public eateries. The well-to-do bourgeois tasted aristocratic cuisine and they liked it.  More than half a century later, when the following text was written, there were hundreds of restaurants in Paris. Eating out made more sense than staying at home. One saved on kitchen fuel, which was a considerable expense at the time, and one could choose from a variety of expertly cooked dishes.

James Jackson Jarves (1818-1888), the author of the text, visited Paris in the early 1850s and published his impressions in Parisian Sights and French Principles, seen through American spectacles (1852). His wit and the clarity of his style vividly portray the living condition in the mid-century Paris.

To see the French eat one should visit the restaurants of lesser magnitude and fame, particularly of a Sunday, where the rush to dinner, as no one dines that day under his own roof, is absolutely fearful to a lover of a quiet meal. Infants, dogs, and nurses, all have a seat that day, and the amount consumed would indicate considerable preparatory fasting. Eating and drinking, for the moment, become the only business of life. The preparations bespeak the seriousness of the operation.

A family enters, consisting of father, mother, maiden sister, two children under five years of age, and a dog. All the tables are filled. They turn to go out. The restaurateur rushes forward, intercepts their retreat, and promises a table toutsuite. He sees one party have called for their bills, hands them their change, and plumps the newcomers into their warm seats., with an array of broken bread, dirty glasses, and all the debris of the previous meal before them.

Once seated, with bonnets and hats hung up, they are considered as secure as fish fairly hooked. The garçon, with the dexterity and rapidity peculiarly his own, whisks away the soiled tablecloth and dishes, and in an instant has replaced them with snow-white linen and porcelain.

Now commences the tug of eating. Each member of the party, except for the dog who gravely occupies the chair, too well-bred to manifest impatience, plants a napkin under his or her chin, of the dimensions of a moderate-sized tablecloth. The females pin the extremities to each shoulder so that in front they have much the appearance of being in their shrouds. The menu card is studied, orders given, and content and pleasure reign. At these family feasts, children are literally crammed, indulged with wines and the delicacies called for by adult taste, their parents delighted in proportion to the quantity they consume.

Eating, under almost any circumstances, is to a looker-on a vulgar operation. In one of these restaurants, it is certainly an amusing one to a veteran traveler. whose sensibilities had long since their edges blunted. The French from early habit frequently make themselves very much at home at restaurants and cafes, spending their evenings at the latter, reading the journals, and playing chess and dominoes, paying the same by calling for a bottle of beer or a glass of brandy. I have myself seen a woman who had come in by herself, after finishing her repast, coolly throw herself back in a chair and proceed to take a comfortable digestive nap, apparently wholly oblivious to the existence and manifold trials of the race denominated unprotected females.

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Extreme Good Recycling  Warning: Do not read during or immediately after a meal!

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The Cheapest Gourmet Restaurants in Paris

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Grand Prix Day by Frederick Childe Hassam

 

Abandon all romantic thoughts about horses and think of horse manure. It was a problem that was growing as the large cities grew even larger. Toward the end of the 19th century, the waste product of horse digestion covered the city streets in thick layers.  For the city councils, it was a headache for which there was no soothing pill. Each day in Paris, 90,000 horses needed to be fed and their waste disposed of somehow. London and New York experienced an even worse calamity.

It was generally thought that the first international conference on urban planning would bring a solution. The year was 1898 and the symposium of one-week duration opened with great pomp in New York, the most dynamically growing city in the world. Attendees arrived from many world’s capitals.  The New York’s mayor led the opening speeches at the City Hall and journalists competed in speculation about what would be the outcome of the high-level conference. Horse manure was the main subject. But the meeting of the city planners ended quietly after three days of failure. No solution was found.

At the time of the conference, London could boast of the world’s first ever underground rail system but eleven thousand horse-driven taxis still carried people on the surface. The passenger transport used horse-drawn buses. A standard car, with twenty seats and a pair of horses, worked sixteen hours a day. The animals were not allowed to work for more than four hours, so at least eight horses were needed for one car. During hot weather, it was necessary to use fresh horses more often.  The transport of heavy goods needed a stream of freight wagons pulled by four to twelve horses. The driving force of London was about 190,000 horses, each producing up to 50 pounds of waste per day. Each day, London’s four-legged population yielded about four and a half million pounds of dung. Add to it the hectolitres of horse urine and you cannot be surprised that the turn of the century was called the Age of Decay. A New York newspaper of the time complains that the whole city “is covered with brownish smoking carpet that stinks to high heaven”. On hot days, it was preferable to live behind closed doors and windows.

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Horses needed hay feed and straw for bedding. Delivery wagons, such as these, were a common sight in the cities.

 

Nobody wanted the manure. The farmers had enough of their own. The only people happy about the situation were real estate speculators, who purchased cheap parcels of land and converted them into dung depots. There, the heaps of manure reached up to 15 meters high which did not help the air quality in the cities.

As if that was not enough, there were horse carcasses, each weighing about one thousand pounds. Many horses were left where they died by unscrupulous owners. Their bodies were a paradise for flies and various insects, as well as for rats. In New York, about 15,000 carcasses were removed every year from the streets.

Hygiene and cleanliness seemed to be unreachable goals as the conference ended on a gloomy note. The dire prognosis envisaged that, at the current rate of growth, in 1930 large cities streets would be buried under three meters of manure. No one could imagine cities without horses.  And so, burdened with black thoughts of a bleak future, the participants left for home after only three days. However, as we know, cities eventually did not drown in horse manure. Automobiles and electric tramways saved us just in time.

Related post:

Crinolines and Impériales: Public Transport in Paris

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When you lay bricks for eight years, you may end up with a house. Or a monument. Two weeks ago, when I decided to make my Victorian Paris blog posts into an e-book, I had no idea that I would end up with over four hundred pages of text and pictures. Yet here it is, and it is for sale at Amazon at a very reasonable price. Even though the blog is a labor of love, I wouldn’t mind getting recompense for feeding it and keeping it alive. Hence this book. There is still plenty to come in the next eight years and  I hope that you’ll stay with me for the ride.

Book description:

The Victorian Paris blog has informed and entertained readers since 2011. The illustrated posts collected in the book deal with every aspect of life in the French capital during the rise and fall of the Second Empire as well as the Belle Époque. Meet the movers and the shakers, discover the dark alleys of Paris where sin lured and gangs ruled, learn about the food (not always good). Follow the ordinary Parisian bourgeois in his daily routine and meet colorful Bohemian characters. Read what the wide-eyed British and American tourists thought of the city and its special inhabitants: the romantic grisettes, the predatory gigolettes,  the formidable Apaches, and other Parisian fauna. Americans began to visit Paris in the mid-century, when sea-travel became more comfortable and, after absorbing the inevitable culture shock, many fell in love with the city. They’ll tell you about it in this book.

E-book edition, 438 pages, 7.50 US       Buy here 

 

Table of Contents:

 

THE GUIDE TO GAY PAREE

(A Guide for the English and American Traveller in 1869 or How to see PARIS for 5 guineas)

How to get there

Arrival in Paris

Find a hotel

Restaurants and Cafés

Shopping

Entertainment

Sightseeing

Beware!

 

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE SECOND EMPIRE

Mark Twain o Napoleon III

The English Courtesan Who Made a French Emperor

Eugenie, the Tragic Empress

Loulou and the Zulus: The Life and Death of Napoleon IV

The Prince of Wales in Paris: “Please Adopt Me!”

What Mark Twain Got Wrong

The Bloodbath of the Paris Commune

The Truth About La Marseillaise

How Germany Was Born in France

Paris of the 1870’s: Rising from the Ashes

 

THE PEOPLE OF PARIS

The Upper Class

The Middle Class

The Working Class

La Grisette

The Sad story of Two Grisettes

The Noon Girl: La Midinette

The Parisian Clochard: Misery Made Romantic

From Washerwoman to a Queen of Paris

 

LIFESTYLE AND MANNERS

Parisian Lifestyle: Sensual Ease and Contentment

French-Watching in 1850: Feeding Time at a Popular Restaurant

Old When Young and Young When Old

The Pilgrims and the Sinners: Sunday in Paris

Bois de Boulogne: The Rendezvous of Wealth and Opulence

Polite Parisians: Really?

The Love of Dogs

Mending Their Manners

Quiet Demoiselles and Proud Servants

Clever and Bizarre Local Items

The Last Duel in Paris

 

FAMILY MATTERS

The French Family Ties

The Marriage Market

Without a Dowry: The Business of Marriage

The Dead of Paris

 

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS

Parisians at Home and the Secrets d’Alcôve

Living Vertically: Parisian Housing in 1850

Feared and Despised: The Parisian Concierge

Jacques Takes a Bath

The Belle Epoque Lifestyle: Personal Hygiene

Paris in Winter: Not to be Desired

The Worst Season in Paris

 

PARIS DOWNSTAIRS: THE SERVANTS

La Soubrette

The Wet-Nurse

La Femme de Ménage

The Upper Servants

 

FOOD AND DRINK

La Cuisine and the Liver Crisis

Food and Drink Orgy: Le Club des Grands Estomachs

Food: Not so Good

The Scarcity of Water

French Bread, French Teeth

Extreme Food Recycling

The French Art of Drinking Without Getting Drunk

The Belle Époque Catering Extravaganza

 

PUBLIC WORKS AND SERVICES

The Government of Paris: A Success Story

The Government of Paris Will Sell Your Crinoline

Parisian Foundlings

Poor and Helpless in 19th Century Paris

Paris Morgue in Emile Zola’s Words

Paris Mail: Look for the Blue Light

Crinolines and Imperials: The Public Transport

The French Art of Peeing Without Getting Wet Feet

The Eiffel Tower Story

 

CRIME AND JUSTICE

The Gangs of Paris: Les Apaches

1890s Terror in Paris

Order in the Street

The Policeman’s Work is Never Done

Slumming It in Paris

Saint-Lazare: Women in Prison

Murder Most Horrible: The Bloody Trunk Case

 

PROSTITUTION

The Opera of Paris: We Procure Our Ballerinas to Wealthy Men

The Fortifications Whore

La Gigolette

The Impostor

The Jolie Madame

The Clandestine

The Belle Époque Hooters

Degrees of Prostitution

 

FASHION

A Short Guide to the Ups and Downs of 19th Century Fashion

The Fashion Empire of Charles Worth

About Corsets

The Hoop Crinoline: Living in a Cage

The Hoop Crinoline: Dying for Fashion

Sports Events and Men’s Fashion

 

ART AND LITERATURE

Jean Béraud: The Most Parisian of the Paris Painters

The Art of Crafty: The Spectacle of Paris Streets

James Tissot and the Women of Paris

Paris Markets in Victor Gilbert’s Paintings

The Goncourts: Gossip Inc.

Disdéri’s Photo Studio: Kings, Queens, and Pretty Legs

La Castiglione: The Too Much Countess

 

ENTERTAINMENT

The Inescapable Sarah Bernhardt

Louise and Jeanne: The Antipodes of Moulin Rouge

 

SEE OTHER BOOKS BY THE AUTHOR IN THE SIDEBAR >>>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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“I equal the highest-born ladies with my birth, I surpass them with my beauty, and I judge them with my mind.” Thus spoke Virginia Oldoïni, Countess of Castiglione, who was convinced that she was the most beautiful woman since God had created the World. With this attitude, she managed to lead not one but several lives. Conspirator and diplomat in petticoats, an emancipated courtesan, a pioneer of photography,  an art director and producer, La Castiglione was, above all, a professional beauty. Aged only 18, married for a year and mother of a male child, Virginia—Nicchia to family and friends—already managed to add several lovers to her stable of admirers in her native land. One of them was Victor Emmanuel IIKing of Sardinia, who dreamt of a united Italy.

italy 1860

A part of Northern Italy (in yellow) was then a territory of the Austrian Empire and the Austrians were unwilling to part with it. An armed conflict could not be won without strong allies. One of the most desirable allies for this project was Napoleon III. Knowing the French monarch’s penchant for women, Victor Emmanuel and his minister Cavour (Virginia’s cousin) thought of the Pearl of Italy as Virginia was then known. They charged her with the mission of convincing the French emperor to lend a helping hand for the unification of the country. Impressed with the importance of the plot, she accepted eagerly. The king and his minister profited from their visit to France by spreading the rumor of her beauty so that when she finally appeared in Paris, in January 1856, she was the object of a wide-spread curiosity at the Court.

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A costume ball saw La Castiglione in her famous Queen of Hearts outfit. She wears it without a corset and the transparent gauze reveals her bosom. Empress Eugenie remarked with open sarcasm that the heart was seated too low

The diplomatic task was not as easy as Virginia expected. Napoleon III, usually easily seducible, resisted for four agonizing months.  During that time, the countess spent heavily on extravagant outfits with very low-cut necklines. One wit observed that the larger Virginia’s décolletages became, the less room there remained in men’s pants. She began to specialize in spectacular entrances, usually toward the end of social gatherings. On one such occasion, she entered the ballroom as Napoleon III was leaving. “You are too late,” he said to her. “No, Sire. You are leaving too early,” she retorted.

This marked a break in her bad luck. The emperor, who had considered her a dull doll, took notice. Her appearance at a masked ball as a Decadent Roman Woman finally brought result. With her abundant hair loose and her skirt split to show a nude leg, a ring on each toe, she caused a sensation. A crowd gathered around her to gape; some women even climbed onto the furniture to get a better view. Within a week, she became the emperor’s mistress and her letters describing successful pillow talks reached the Sardinian embassy to be dispatched by the diplomatic mail.

While Virginia enjoyed the status of the emperor’s mistress, her impoverished husband returned home to sell the family silver. His wife’s extravagance had ruined him and the pair separated for good. Virginia made no friends at the French court either. She was heartily hated by all for her stupid arrogance. They called her the Too Much Countess and when she kept bragging about her lover’s gifts, the emperor cut her off without mercy. Napoleon III would not tolerate indiscreet mistresses.

Capture

The Too Much Countess

After two years basking in the imperial favor, La Castiglione returned home to Turin, defeated, and soon sank into boredom. She brightened up when Victor Emmanuel granted her a pension for her diplomatic merits. She began to travel to the courts of Europe as her scandalous reputation led to invitations from people who wanted to satisfy their curiosity. During her stay at the court of the King of Prussia, she made the acquaintance of Chancellor Bismarck. Her second chance at diplomacy came much later (in 1871) when Napoleon III, ill, defeated, and with his empire in ruins, asked her to intervene with Bismarck to cancel his plan for the Prussian army to occupy Paris. Paris was spared the Prussian occupation.

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During her first stay in Paris, Virginia posed for many photographs. She returned in 1861 with her son Giorgio to have more pictures taken. This was a hobby, and a passion, that was to last for the next forty years. She spent her fortune on elaborate costumes and props

In 1863, she was invited to a costume ball in the imperial palace. She appeared disguised as Queen of Etruria. Virginia rushed the next day to the photography studio to immortalize her outfit. Convinced of her success and her return to the upper echelons, she took lascivious and suave poses, miming innocence. However, the costume was judged scandalous. The press was unleashed and she was accused of appearing naked at the party.

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Her husband, still in Italy, threatened to take Giorgio back. She responded with a photograph called “The Vengeance”. In this picture, she is dressed in the same costume of Queen of Etruria but with a cape covering her shoulders. Another addition is a dagger she holds in her hand. After this, her husband ceased to protest.

The volcanic countess continued to produce dramatic photographs of herself for many years. The Metropolitan Museum in New York has a collection of some 400 of them. Virginia appears as a tragic victim,  a pursued virgin, a nun, an Odalisque, and many other incarnations. She was the first to invent dramatic poses. By choosing the costumes, the angles, and the shots, she wrote a new chapter in the history of photography.

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La Castiglione in 1875. As the years passed, the mirror returned a less satisfactory image.

Women, who build their life on their beauty alone, suffer when old age hits.  A few of the lucky ones accept their fate and do not fight the wrinkles. Others hang on using artificial means to keep their beauty until they become the caricatures of their former selves. Some go into hiding.  No longer able to admire herself in the mirror, Virginia banned all mirrors from her house. With both her husband and her son deceased, she ended her days alone, immured in a modest Parisian apartment with the walls covered in black and the shutters closed. She died in 1899, aged 62. The Italian embassy immediately dispatched an agent to burn all possible compromising correspondence.

Related posts:

The English Courtesan Who Made a French Emperor

Disdéri’s Photo Studio: Kings, Queens, and Pretty Legs

Traveller’s Bonus: Top 10 Free Museums in Paris

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Carriages returning from a Sunday parade in the Bois

 

A previous post described the random free spectacles of the Paris streets. The largest and most ostentatious free show had a steady schedule. Every day, between 2:00 and 4:00 PM, the wealthy shamelessly exposed their luxury to each other, and to the unwashed masses, in the Bois de Boulogne parade.

 

Going to the Bois on a workday

 

Before becoming the favorite place of all social Paris in the 19th century, the Bois de Boulogne had a history. Originally, the forest extended on the plains and hillsides of the right bank of the Seine. A landmark of brigands and vagabonds, the ancient forest was also the favorite place of royal hunts. At the end of Napoleon I’s regime, it was devastated by the occupying troops who encamped there. Although in poor condition and crossed by narrow roads of bad quality, it became nevertheless, around 1830, the rendezvous of all Paris society.


In 1852, the State yielded the wood to the city of Paris with the charge of its development and maintenance. Emperor Napoleon III had envisioned the creation of a large landscaped park similar to Hyde Park. The project was entrusted to the engineer J.J. Alphand who created two lakes, the largest of which measures 19 hectares. Various amenities: large alleys, the racecourse of Longchamp (opened in 1858), the Garden of Acclimatization, and several restaurants completed the whole landscape.

 

Riding in the Daumont style
Riding in the Daumont Style


During the Second Empire (1852-1870), the equestrian rendezvous of the Bois de Boulogne was rated as a meeting of the supreme social chic. The chroniclers of the time tell us of its splendor:

“At the height of luxury was the attelage à la Grand Daumont, with its postilions in livery— of sober or bright colors according to the tastes of the masters—the footmen behind the hood, arms crossed, the two men in a row on horses of the same dress as the four draft horses. Then there came the eighth-spring, the queen of the passenger carriages. There was also the elegant half-Daumont of a duke with horses very close and absolutely under the whip of the gentleman-coachman who drove almost standing. The tandem cabriolet was another fantasy designed to bring out the talent of the gentleman-coachman. Then came a cute cart dragged by two pretty ponies under the hand of the elegant lady who also wanted to show that she could hold the reins.  All aristocratic, luxurious and worldly Paris was there, struggling with elegance and sumptuousness … “

 

 

Romance, or the carnal desire, also played its part. The poet Beaudelaire best describes the mood:


“Sometimes a horseman gallops gracefully beside an open carriage, and his horse appears, by his bows, to salute in his own way. The carriage carries away, in an alley streaked with light and shade, the beauties lying as in a boat, indolent, vaguely listening to the gallantries fall into their ears and indulging themselves lazily in the wind of the promenade. The fur and muslin rise to their chins and overflow like a wave over the door. The servants are stiff, perpendicular, inert, and all alike; it is always the monotonous and featureless effigy of punctual, disciplined servility … “

Cora Pearl

On the side of the great courtesans, luxury was no less brilliant. The famous Madame Musard had a half-Daumont, whose postilions were dressed in violet livery and mounted black horses of admirable beauty. Cora Pearl had set up her stable and was leading it with an authority that made the gossips tell that she must have been brought up by a groom. Adele Courtois, Caroline Letessier, the Barucci, famous for the baccarat affair, all had their car driven to the Daumont, and their livery could compete with those of the oldest houses of the Faubourg Saint-Germain.

Empress Eugenie

Lady Harriet, the courtesan who financed the emperor while he was waiting for his crown, approached by her colors the imperial livery. Madame Lejeune had the audacity to do better. She took the imperial colors outright. One day, her Daumont went out, preceded by two scouts in green and gold, with a hunter on horseback at the left door and two carriage boys following also on horseback. As she had a certain resemblance to the Empress, all the sergeants of the town who saw the arrival of this crew on the Place de la Concorde, rushed forward, made room for them, and finally raised the chains of the Arc de Triomphe, so that the sovereign could pass. She went in this style to the entrance of the Bois. This adventure made a big noise. As a consequence, it was expressly forbidden to employ a livery which, even approximately, recalled that of the Emperor.

This luxury only grew from year to year. It was at its peak in 1867 at the time of the World Exposition. With the fall of the Empire, the splendor would gradually fade: the walks in the Bois and participation in the various events took a different look.

 

Courses in the Bois de Boulogne by Eduard Manet 1872

During the siege of Paris, part of the food of fish and game came from the Bois. More destructive authorization was given to the trade of timber dealers to exploit the Bois de Boulogne. The devastation increased during the battles between Versailles and the Communards. After the war, the southern part, the most devastated, was transformed into the racecourse of Auteuil. From 1872, social life resumed and we could see again the parades of carriages crossing the Bois for the Grand Prix de Longchamp.

 

 

After the Great War ended in 1918, this activity declined. The prodigal nobility of the nineteenth and early twentieth century no longer existed. Only the profiteers of war, the new rich, held the high ground and the automobile had taken over. An époque ended.

Related posts:

The English Courtesan that Made a French Emperor

The Guide to Gay Paree 1868: Sightseeing

 
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